Hearing & Balance Center

Auditory nerve — Bundle of nerve fibers that carry electrical impulses between the inner ear and the brain.

Auditory canal — Also called the ear canal, it conducts sound toward the eardrum.

Cochlea — Part of the inner ear, contains fluid and hair-like nerve cells that convert mechanical energy from the middle ear into electrical impulses.

Conductive hearing loss — Any hearing loss caused by damage or disease in the outer or middle ears.

Eustachian tube — A tube that extends from the middle ear to the roof of the throat; it keeps the air pressure in the middle ear consistent with the air pressure in the immediate environment.

Incus — The anvil shaped bone; middle bone of the ossicular chain (the three tiny bones that connect the eardrum and the inner ear).

Inner ear — Part of the ear that contains the cochlea, an organ of hearing, and the labyrinth, an organ of balance.

Mastoid — The section of the skull located behind the outer ear that houses the middle and inner ears.

Malleus — The hammer shaped bone; outermost of the ossicles, the three tiny bones that connect the eardrum and inner ear.

Middle ear — The air-containing cavity of the ear; lying between the eardrum and the inner ear, it includes the eardrum and the ossicles, which are the three tiny bones called malleus, incus and stapes.

Ossicles — A linkage of three tiny bones – the malleus, incus and stapes, also known as the hammer, anvil and stirrup; they provide the mechanical coupling between the eardrum and the cochlea.

Outer ear — The part of the ear that captures sound; it is composed of the visible parts of the ear and the canal leading to the eardrum.

Pinna, or auricle — The portion of the ear that is visible from the outside, made up of cartilage and skin; it funnels sound into the ear canal and protects the rest of the ear.

Semicircular canals — The body’s balance organs, they detect the body’s movement and communicate its position to the brain.

Sensorineural hearing loss — Hearing loss caused by damage or disease in the inner ear.

Stapes — The stirrup-shaped ossicle that transmits sound from the incus to the cochlea; the innermost of the ossicles.

Temporal bone — The temporal bones form part of the base of the skull; among the hardest of all the bones, it includes the mastoid and protects the hearing and balance systems.

Tinnitus — The sensation of a ringing, roaring, or buzzing in the ears or head; it is often associated with many forms of hearing impairment and noise exposure.

Tympanic membrane — Also called the eardrum, it separates the ear canal from the middle ear, vibrating when sound waves hit it.

Vertigo — A false sensation of motion or spinning that leads to dizziness and discomfort.

Head & Neck Surgery Center

Aerodigestive tract — Combined airway and food passages.

Anaplastic thyroid cancer — Highly aggressive type of thyroid cancer; thankfully rare.

CT scans — Computerized X-Ray often used for diagnosis of head and neck tumors.

Endocrinologist — Non-surgeon medical doctor specializing in glands.

Endoscopy — Evaluation of any area using lighted telescope; it can be flexible or rigid.

Erythroplakia — Red discoloration of tissue.

Esophagus — Food pipe that extends from the pharynx to stomach.

Fine needle aspiration — Placement of fine needle into tissues to obtain cells which are then reviewed for diagnosis.

Follicular thyroid cancer — Second most common cancer of the thyroid gland.

Hyperthyroidism — Overactive thyroid gland.

Hemithyroidectomy — Surgical procedure that removes half of thyroid gland.

LarynxVoice box.

Laryngoscope — Lighted telescope used to visualize the larynx or voice box; either flexible (fiber optic) or rigid (open tune).

Medullary thyroid cancer — Third most common cancer of thyroid, may have hereditary component.

MRI — Computerized imaging technique using magnetic waves rather than radiation.

Mucosa — Lining of body tubes.

Oral cavity — Mouth.

Oropharynx — Posterior part of oral cavity.

Papillary thyroid cancer — Most common type of thyroid cancer.

Parathyroid adenoma — Benign tumor of parathyroid gland, usually affecting one to four glands and causes elevated calcium levels.

Parathyroid hyperplasia — Overgrowth of all (four) parathyroid glands, also causes elevated calcium levels.

PET scans — Computerized imaging uses glucose metabolism to identify tumors.

PET/CT scans — Combination of PET scanning with CT scanning to better identify tumors.

Pharynx — Area of throat between oral cavity and vocal cords.

Sestamibi scan — Imaging technique used to isolate overactive parathyroid gland or glands.

Squamous cell carcinoma — Common tumor of upper aerodigestive tract; causally-related to smoking and drinking.

Thyroid adenomas — Benign tumor of thyroid gland.

Thyroid goiters — Large, multi-cystic thyroid gland.

Trachea — Windpipe.

Facial Plastics Center

Blepharoplasty — Surgery of the eyelids in which fat and excess skin, bags, pouches, wrinkles in the eye area are removed.

Botulinum Toxin Botox® — Injected to relax facial muscles temporarily to eliminate wrinkles for three to six months.

Cheek / Chin Augmentation — Surgery where implants are placed in the cheeks or chin to improve bone structure, balance a profile, or support sagging, soft tissues.

Chin Augmentation — See Cheek / Chin Augmentation.

Chemical Peels — Resurfacing of the skin with an acid solution that peels the top layers and allows smoother, regenerated skin to emerge; an effective treatment for wrinkles caused by sun damage, mild scarring, and certain types of acne.

Collagen Implant — An injection of natural protein, which raises skin tissue to smooth the skin and make wrinkles and scars appear less visible.

Dermabrasion — A facial sanding technique used to treat deep scars and wrinkles, raised scar tissue, and some severe cases of cystic acne; top layers of skin are «sanded» off with a high-speed rotating brush or a diamond-coated wheel.

Facial Reconstruction — Surgery to repair or reconstruct facial features in victims of cancer, facial trauma, and birth defects.

Filler Injections — Most commonly collagen – a gel like substance derived from purified animal tissue, and fat – which is harvested from the patient’s thigh or abdomen and then injected to plump up facial areas or «fill» wrinkled areas (see also Botox).

Browlift/Forehead Lift — Surgery to minimize forehead lines and wrinkles, and to elevate brows to reduce lid drooping.

Forehead Lift — See Browlift/Forehead Lift.

Liposuction — Surgery to reduce excess fatty deposits.

Mentoplasty — Surgery to balance a profile by enlarging, reducing, or reshaping the chin.

Microdermabrasion — A mini-peeling with minimal risk of dyspigmentation or scarring that is achieved by projecting aluminum micro-crystals onto the skin (also referred as the «Power Peel», «Euro Peel», «Parisian Peel» or «Derma Peel»); safe for all skin types.

Otoplasty — Surgery of the ear in which protruding or deformed ears can be «pinned back» by reshaping the cartilage.

Rhinoplasty — Aesthetic surgery of the nose in which cartilage and bone are reshaped and reconstructed; excess bone or cartilage may be removed.

Rhytidectomy — Facelift surgery in which excess skin is removed and muscles are tightened.

Scar Revision Surgery — Procedures to help minimize visible facial scars.

Septorhinoplasty — A form of rhinoplasty that is performed to reconstruct the nasal passage or to relieve obstructions inside the nose to correct breathing problems; the obstruction is removed through internal incisions and the interior of the nose is restructured.

Skin Resurfacing — Removal of the outer layer of the skin using abrasion, chemicals, or a laser, resulting in smoother and less wrinkled skin.